4 letter word starting with r

Words Parts of Speech Meaning/Definition/Similar Words
ries plural of Lachrymatory
raca adjective A term of reproach used by the Jews of our Savior’s time, meaning “worthless.”
race verb t. To raze., A root., The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed., Company; herd; breed., A variety of such fixed character that it may be propagated by seed., Peculiar flavor, taste, or strength, as of wine; that quality, or assemblage of qualities, which indicates origin or kind, as in wine; hence, characteristic flavor; smack., Hence, characteristic quality or disposition., A progress; a course; a movement or progression., Esp., swift progress; rapid course; a running., Hence: The act or process of running in competition; a contest of speed in any way, as in running, riding, driving, skating, rowing, sailing; in the plural, usually, a meeting for contests in the running of horses; as, he attended the races., Competitive action of any kind, especially when prolonged; hence, career; course of life., A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; a powerful current or heavy sea, sometimes produced by the meeting of two tides; as, the Portland Race; the Race of Alderney., The current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel in which it flows; a mill race., A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc., To run swiftly; to contend in a race; as, the animals raced over the ground; the ships raced from port to port., To run too fast at times, as a marine engine or screw, when the screw is lifted out of water by the action of a heavy sea., To cause to contend in a race; to drive at high speed; as, to race horses., To run a race with.
rach noun Alt. of Rache
rack noun Same as Arrack., The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton., A wreck; destruction., Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky., To fly, as vapor or broken clouds., To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace; — said of a horse., A fast amble., To draw off from the lees or sediment, as wine., An instrument or frame used for stretching, extending, retaining, or displaying, something., An engine of torture, consisting of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated; — formerly used judicially for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons., An instrument for bending a bow., A grate on which bacon is laid., A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts., A frame on which articles are deposited for keeping or arranged for display; as, a clothes rack; a bottle rack, etc., A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes; — called also rack block. Also, a frame to hold shot., A frame or table on which ores are separated or washed., A frame fitted to a wagon for carrying hay, straw, or grain on the stalk, or other bulky loads., A distaff., A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it., That which is extorted; exaction., To extend by the application of force; to stretch or strain; specifically, to stretch on the rack or wheel; to torture by an engine which strains the limbs and pulls the joints., To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish., To stretch or strain, in a figurative sense; hence, to harass, or oppress by extortion., To wash on a rack, as metals or ore., To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.
racy superl. Having a strong flavor indicating origin; of distinct characteristic taste; tasting of the soil; hence, fresh; rich., Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively.
rade noun A raid.
raff verb t. To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep., A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse., The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; — chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, riffraff., A low fellow; a churl.
raft imp. & p. p. of Reave., A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float., A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation., A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately., To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to raft timber., of Reave
rage noun Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will., Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury., A violent or raging wind., The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage., To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion., To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds., To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague raged in Cairo., To toy or act wantonly; to sport., To enrage.
raia noun A genus of rays which includes the skates. See Skate.
raid noun A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray., An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a raid of the police upon a gambling house; a raid of contractors on the public treasury., To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments raided the border counties.
rail noun An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women., To flow forth; to roll out; to course., A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc., A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See Illust. of Style., A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc., The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks., The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed., To inclose with rails or a railing., To range in a line., Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family Rallidae, especially those of the genus Rallus, and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds., To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; — followed by at or against, formerly by on., To rail at., To move or influence by railing.
rain noun & verb Reign., Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops., To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; — used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains., To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears rained from their eyes., To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds., To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to rain favors upon a person.
raip noun A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod.
rais noun Same as 2d Reis.
raja noun Same as Rajah.
rake noun An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, — used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth., A toothed machine drawn by a horse, — used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake., A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; — called also rake-vein., To collect with a rake; as, to rake hay; — often with up; as, he raked up the fallen leaves., To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to rake together wealth; to rake together slanderous tales; to rake together the rabble of a town., To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to rake a lawn; to rake a flower bed., To search through; to scour; to ransack., To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does., To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck., To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely., To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along., The inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the rake of a roof, a staircase, etc., the inclination of a mast or funnel, or, in general, of any part of a vessel not perpendicular to the keel., To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast rakes aft., A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a roue., To walk about; to gad or ramble idly., To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life.
rale noun An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See Rhonchus.
ramp verb i. To spring; to leap; to bound; to rear; to prance; to become rampant; hence, to frolic; to romp., To move by leaps, or as by leaps; hence, to move swiftly or with violence., To climb, as a plant; to creep up., A leap; a spring; a hostile advance., A highwayman; a robber., A romping woman; a prostitute., Any sloping member, other than a purely constructional one, such as a continuous parapet to a staircase., A short bend, slope, or curve, where a hand rail or cap changes its direction., An inclined plane serving as a communication between different interior levels.
rami plural of Ramus
rana noun A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.
rand noun A border; edge; margin., A long, fleshy piece, as of beef, cut from the flank or leg; a sort of steak., A thin inner sole for a shoe; also, a leveling slip of leather applied to the sole before attaching the heel., To rant; to storm.
rang imp. of Ring, v. t. & i., of Ring
rani noun A queen or princess; the wife of a rajah.
rank superl. Luxuriant in growth; of vigorous growth; exuberant; grown to immoderate height; as, rank grass; rank weeds., Raised to a high degree; violent; extreme; gross; utter; as, rank heresy., Causing vigorous growth; producing luxuriantly; very rich and fertile; as, rank land., Strong-scented; rancid; musty; as, oil of a rank smell; rank-smelling rue., Strong to the taste., Inflamed with venereal appetite., Rankly; stoutly; violently., A row or line; a range; an order; a tier; as, a rank of osiers., A line of soldiers ranged side by side; — opposed to file. See 1st File, 1 (a)., Grade of official standing, as in the army, navy, or nobility; as, the rank of general; the rank of admiral., An aggregate of individuals classed together; a permanent social class; an order; a division; as, ranks and orders of men; the highest and the lowest ranks of men, or of other intelligent beings., Degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence; position in civil or social life; station; degree; grade; as, a writer of the first rank; a lawyer of high rank., Elevated grade or standing; high degree; high social position; distinction; eminence; as, a man of rank., To place abreast, or in a line., To range in a particular class, order, or division; to class; also, to dispose methodically; to place in suitable classes or order; to classify., To take rank of; to outrank., To be ranged; to be set or disposed, as in a particular degree, class, order, or division., To have a certain grade or degree of elevation in the orders of civil or military life; to have a certain degree of esteem or consideration; as, he ranks with the first class of poets; he ranks high in public estimation.
rant verb i. To rave in violent, high-sounding, or extravagant language, without dignity of thought; to be noisy, boisterous, and bombastic in talk or declamation; as, a ranting preacher., High-sounding language, without importance or dignity of thought; boisterous, empty declamation; bombast; as, the rant of fanatics.
rapt of Rap, imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away., Snatched away; hurried away or along., Transported with love, admiration, delight, etc.; enraptured., Wholly absorbed or engrossed, as in work or meditation., An ecstasy; a trance., Rapidity., To transport or ravish., To carry away by force.
rape noun Fruit, as grapes, plucked from the cluster., The refuse stems and skins of grapes or raisins from which the must has been expressed in wine making., A filter containing the above refuse, used in clarifying and perfecting malt, vinegar, etc., The act of seizing and carrying away by force; violent seizure; robbery., Sexual connection with a woman without her consent. See Age of consent, under Consent, n., That which is snatched away., Movement, as in snatching; haste; hurry., To commit rape upon; to ravish., To rob; to pillage., One of six divisions of the county of Sussex, England, intermediate between a hundred and a shire., A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.
rare adjective Early., Nearly raw; partially cooked; not thoroughly cooked; underdone; as, rare beef or mutton., Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a rare event., Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found., Thinly scattered; dispersed., Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a rare atmosphere at high elevations.
rase verb t. To rub along the surface of; to graze., To rub or scratch out; to erase., To level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to raze., To be leveled with the ground; to fall; to suffer overthrow., A scratching out, or erasure., A slight wound; a scratch., A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it.
rash verb t. To pull off or pluck violently., To slash; to hack; to cut; to slice., A fine eruption or efflorescence on the body, with little or no elevation., An inferior kind of silk, or mixture of silk and worsted., Sudden in action; quick; hasty., Requiring sudden action; pressing; urgent., Esp., overhasty in counsel or action; precipitate; resolving or entering on a project or measure without due deliberation and caution; opposed to prudent; said of persons; as, a rash statesman or commander., Uttered or undertaken with too much haste or too little reflection; as, rash words; rash measures., So dry as to fall out of the ear with handling, as corn., To prepare with haste.
rasp verb t. To rub or file with a rasp; to rub or grate with a rough file; as, to rasp wood to make it smooth; to rasp bones to powder., Hence, figuratively: To grate harshly upon; to offend by coarse or rough treatment or language; as, some sounds rasp the ear; his insults rasped my temper., A coarse file, on which the cutting prominences are distinct points raised by the oblique stroke of a sharp punch, instead of lines raised by a chisel, as on the true file., The raspberry.
rata noun A New Zealand forest tree (Metrosideros robusta), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs.
rate verb t. & i. To chide with vehemence; to scold; to censure violently., Established portion or measure; fixed allowance., That which is established as a measure or criterion; degree; standard; rank; proportion; ratio; as, a slow rate of movement; rate of interest is the ratio of the interest to the principal, per annum., Valuation; price fixed with relation to a standard; cost; charge; as, high or low rates of transportation., A tax or sum assessed by authority on property for public use, according to its income or value; esp., in England, a local tax; as, parish rates; town rates., Order; arrangement., Ratification; approval., The gain or loss of a timepiece in a unit of time; as, daily rate; hourly rate; etc., The order or class to which a war vessel belongs, determined according to its size, armament, etc.; as, first rate, second rate, etc., The class of a merchant vessel for marine insurance, determined by its relative safety as a risk, as A1, A2, etc., To set a certain estimate on; to value at a certain price or degree., To assess for the payment of a rate or tax., To settle the relative scale, rank, position, amount, value, or quality of; as, to rate a ship; to rate a seaman; to rate a pension., To ratify., To be set or considered in a class; to have rank; as, the ship rates as a ship of the line., To make an estimate.
rath noun A hill or mound., A kind of ancient fortification found in Ireland., Alt. of Rathe, Alt. of Rathe
rave imp. of Rive., One of the upper side pieces of the frame of a wagon body or a sleigh., To wander in mind or intellect; to be delirious; to talk or act irrationally; to be wild, furious, or raging, as a madman., To rush wildly or furiously., To talk with unreasonable enthusiasm or excessive passion or excitement; — followed by about, of, or on; as, he raved about her beauty., To utter in madness or frenzy; to say wildly; as, to rave nonsense.
raze noun A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as race, a root., To erase; to efface; to obliterate., To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish.
read noun Rennet. See 3d Reed., of Read, To advise; to counsel., To interpret; to explain; as, to read a riddle., To tell; to declare; to recite., To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one’s self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book., Hence, to know fully; to comprehend., To discover or understand by characters, marks, features, etc.; to learn by observation., To make a special study of, as by perusing textbooks; as, to read theology or law., To give advice or counsel., To tell; to declare., To perform the act of reading; to peruse, or to go over and utter aloud, the words of a book or other like document., To study by reading; as, he read for the bar., To learn by reading., To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage reads thus in the early manuscripts., To produce a certain effect when read; as, that sentence reads queerly., Saying; sentence; maxim; hence, word; advice; counsel. See Rede., Reading., imp. & p. p. of Read, v. t. & i., Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned.
reak noun A rush., A prank.
real noun A small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system., Royal; regal; kingly., Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as, a description of real life., True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit, or factitious; often opposed to ostensible; as, the real reason; real Madeira wine; real ginger., Relating to things, not to persons., Having an assignable arithmetical or numerical value or meaning; not imaginary., Pertaining to things fixed, permanent, or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as, real property, in distinction from personal or movable property., A realist.
ream noun Cream; also, the cream or froth on ale., To cream; to mantle., To stretch out; to draw out into thongs, threads, or filaments., A bundle, package, or quantity of paper, usually consisting of twenty quires or 480 sheets., To bevel out, as the mouth of a hole in wood or metal; in modern usage, to enlarge or dress out, as a hole, with a reamer.
reap verb t. To cut with a sickle, scythe, or reaping machine, as grain; to gather, as a harvest, by cutting., To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward or harvest, or as the fruit of labor or of works; — in a good or a bad sense; as, to reap a benefit from exertions., To clear of a crop by reaping; as, to reap a field., To deprive of the beard; to shave., To perform the act or operation of reaping; to gather a harvest., A bundle of grain; a handful of grain laid down by the reaper as it is cut.
rear adverb Early; soon., The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last in order; — opposed to front., Specifically, the part of an army or fleet which comes last, or is stationed behind the rest., Being behind, or in the hindmost part; hindmost; as, the rear rank of a company., To place in the rear; to secure the rear of., To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to rear a monolith., To erect by building; to set up; to construct; as, to rear defenses or houses; to rear one government on the ruins of another., To lift and take up., To bring up to maturity, as young; to educate; to instruct; to foster; as, to rear offspring., To breed and raise; as, to rear cattle., To rouse; to stir up., To rise up on the hind legs, as a horse; to become erect.
reft of Reave, Bereft., A chink; a rift. See Rift.
reck verb t. To make account of; to care for; to heed; to regard., To concern; — used impersonally., To make account; to take heed; to care; to mind; — often followed by of.
rede verb t. To advise or counsel., To interpret; to explain., Advice; counsel; suggestion., A word or phrase; a motto; a proverb; a wise saw.
reed adjective Red., Same as Rede., The fourth stomach of a ruminant; rennet., A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis)., A musical instrument made of the hollow joint of some plant; a rustic or pastoral pipe., An arrow, as made of a reed., Straw prepared for thatching a roof., A small piece of cane or wood attached to the mouthpiece of certain instruments, and set in vibration by the breath. In the clarinet it is a single fiat reed; in the oboe and bassoon it is double, forming a compressed tube., One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ., A frame having parallel flat stripe of metal or reed, between which the warp threads pass, set in the swinging lathe or batten of a loom for beating up the weft; a sley. See Batten., A tube containing the train of powder for igniting the charge in blasting., Same as Reeding.
reef noun A chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water. See Coral reefs, under Coral., A large vein of auriferous quartz; — so called in Australia. Hence, any body of rock yielding valuable ore., That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind., To reduce the extent of (as a sail) by roiling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar.
reek noun A rick., Vapor; steam; smoke; fume., To emit vapor, usually that which is warm and moist; to be full of fumes; to steam; to smoke; to exhale.
reel noun A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the music to the dance; — often called Scotch reel., A frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on an axis, on which yarn, threads, lines, or the like, are wound; as, a log reel, used by seamen; an angler’s reel; a garden reel., A machine on which yarn is wound and measured into lays and hanks, — for cotton or linen it is fifty-four inches in circuit; for worsted, thirty inches., A device consisting of radial arms with horizontal stats, connected with a harvesting machine, for holding the stalks of grain in position to be cut by the knives., To roll., To wind upon a reel, as yarn or thread., To incline, in walking, from one side to the other; to stagger., To have a whirling sensation; to be giddy., The act or motion of reeling or staggering; as, a drunken reel.
reem noun The Hebrew name of a horned wild animal, probably the Urus., To open (the seams of a vessel’s planking) for the purpose of calking them.
rove imp. & past participle of Reeve, To draw through an eye or aperture., To draw out into flakes; to card, as wool., To twist slightly; to bring together, as slivers of wool or cotton, and twist slightly before spinning., A copper washer upon which the end of a nail is clinched in boat building., A roll or sliver of wool or cotton drawn out and slighty twisted, preparatory to further process; a roving., To practice robbery on the seas; to wander about on the seas in piracy., Hence, to wander; to ramble; to rauge; to go, move, or pass without certain direction in any manner, by sailing, walking, riding, flying, or otherwise., To shoot at rovers; hence, to shoot at an angle of elevation, not at point-blank (rovers usually being beyond the point-blank range)., To wander over or through., To plow into ridges by turning the earth of two furrows together., The act of wandering; a ramble.
reis plural of Rei, The word is used as a Portuguese designation of money of account, one hundred reis being about equal in value to eleven cents., A common title in the East for a person in authority, especially the captain of a ship.
reif noun Robbery; spoil.
reim noun A strip of oxhide, deprived of hair, and rendered pliable, — used for twisting into ropes, etc.
rein noun The strap of a bridle, fastened to the curb or snaffle on each side, by which the rider or driver governs the horse., Hence, an instrument or means of curbing, restraining, or governing; government; restraint., To govern or direct with the reins; as, to rein a horse one way or another., To restrain; to control; to check., To be guided by reins.
reit noun Sedge; seaweed.
rely verb i. To rest with confidence, as when fully satisfied of the veracity, integrity, or ability of persons, or of the certainty of facts or of evidence; to have confidence; to trust; to depend; — with on, formerly also with in.
reme noun Realm.
rent imp. & past participle of Rend, To rant., imp. & p. p. of Rend., An opening made by rending; a break or breach made by force; a tear., Figuratively, a schism; a rupture of harmony; a separation; as, a rent in the church., To tear. See Rend., Income; revenue. See Catel., Pay; reward; share; toll., A certain periodical profit, whether in money, provisions, chattels, or labor, issuing out of lands and tenements in payment for the use; commonly, a certain pecuniary sum agreed upon between a tenant and his landlord, paid at fixed intervals by the lessee to the lessor, for the use of land or its appendages; as, rent for a farm, a house, a park, etc., To grant the possession and enjoyment of, for a rent; to lease; as, the owwner of an estate or house rents it., To take and hold under an agreement to pay rent; as, the tennant rents an estate of the owner., To be leased, or let for rent; as, an estate rents for five hundred dollars a year.
rend verb t. To separate into parts with force or sudden violence; to tear asunder; to split; to burst; as, powder rends a rock in blasting; lightning rends an oak., To part or tear off forcibly; to take away by force., To be rent or torn; to become parted; to separate; to split.
reng noun A rank; a row., A rung or round of a ladder.
rese verb i. To shake; to quake; to tremble.
rest verb t. To arrest., A state of quiet or repose; a cessation from motion or labor; tranquillity; as, rest from mental exertion; rest of body or mind., Hence, freedom from everything which wearies or disturbs; peace; security., Sleep; slumber; hence, poetically, death., That on which anything rests or leans for support; as, a rest in a lathe, for supporting the cutting tool or steadying the work., A projection from the right side of the cuirass, serving to support the lance., A place where one may rest, either temporarily, as in an inn, or permanently, as, in an abode., A short pause in reading verse; a c/sura., The striking of a balance at regular intervals in a running account., A set or game at tennis., Silence in music or in one of its parts; the name of the character that stands for such silence. They are named as notes are, whole, half, quarter,etc., To cease from action or motion, especially from action which has caused weariness; to desist from labor or exertion., To be free from whanever wearies or disturbs; to be quiet or still., To lie; to repose; to recline; to lan; as, to rest on a couch., To stand firm; to be fixed; to be supported; as, a column rests on its pedestal., To sleep; to slumber; hence, poetically, to be dead., To lean in confidence; to trust; to rely; to repose without anxiety; as, to rest on a man’s promise., To be satisfied; to acquiesce., To lay or place at rest; to quiet., To place, as on a support; to cause to lean., That which is left, or which remains after the separation of a part, either in fact or in contemplation; remainder; residue., Those not included in a proposition or description; the remainder; others., A surplus held as a reserved fund by a bank to equalize its dividends, etc.; in the Bank of England, the balance of assets above liabilities., To be left; to remain; to continue to be.
rete noun A net or network; a plexus; particularly, a network of blood vessels or nerves, or a part resembling a network.
reve verb t. To reave., An officer, steward, or governor.
rewe verb t. & i. To rue.
reyn noun Rain or rein.
rhea noun The ramie or grass-cloth plant. See Grass-cloth plant, under Grass., Any one of three species of large South American ostrichlike birds of the genera Rhea and Pterocnemia. Called also the American ostrich.
rhob noun See 1st Rob.
rhus noun A genus of shrubs and small treets. See Sumac.
rial noun A Spanish coin. See Real., Royal., A gold coin formerly current in England, of the value of ten shillings sterling in the reign of Henry VI., and of fifteen shillings in the reign of Elizabeth.
rice noun A well-known cereal grass (Oryza sativa) and its seed. This plant is extensively cultivated in warm climates, and the grain forms a large portion of the food of the inhabitants. In America it grows chiefly on low, moist land, which can be overflowed.
rich superl. Having an abundance of material possessions; possessed of a large amount of property; well supplied with land, goods, or money; wealthy; opulent; affluent; — opposed to poor., Hence, in general, well supplied; abounding; abundant; copious; bountiful; as, a rich treasury; a rich entertainment; a rich crop., Yielding large returns; productive or fertile; fruitful; as, rich soil or land; a rich mine., Composed of valuable or costly materials or ingredients; procured at great outlay; highly valued; precious; sumptuous; costly; as, a rich dress; rich silk or fur; rich presents., Abounding in agreeable or nutritive qualities; — especially applied to articles of food or drink which are high-seasoned or abound in oleaginous ingredients, or are sweet, luscious, and high-flavored; as, a rich dish; rich cream or soup; rich pastry; rich wine or fruit., Not faint or delicate; vivid; as, a rich color., Full of sweet and harmonius sounds; as, a rich voice; rich music., Abounding in beauty; gorgeous; as, a rich landscape; rich scenery., Abounding in humor; exciting amusement; entertaining; as, the scene was a rich one; a rich incident or character., To enrich.
rick noun A stack or pile, as of grain, straw, or hay, in the open air, usually protected from wet with thatching., To heap up in ricks, as hay, etc.
rode imp. of Ride, Redness; complexion., imp. of Ride., See Rood, the cross.
ride verb i. To be carried on the back of an animal, as a horse., To be borne in a carriage; as, to ride in a coach, in a car, and the like. See Synonym, below., To be borne or in a fluid; to float; to lie., To be supported in motion; to rest., To manage a horse, as an equestrian., To support a rider, as a horse; to move under the saddle; as, a horse rides easy or hard, slow or fast., To sit on, so as to be carried; as, to ride a horse; to ride a bicycle., To manage insolently at will; to domineer over., To convey, as by riding; to make or do by riding., To overlap (each other); — said of bones or fractured fragments., The act of riding; an excursion on horseback or in a vehicle., A saddle horse., A road or avenue cut in a wood, or through grounds, to be used as a place for riding; a riding.
rief noun Robbery.
rife adjective Prevailing; prevalent; abounding., Having power; active; nimble.
rift p. p. of Rive., An opening made by riving or splitting; a cleft; a fissure., A shallow place in a stream; a ford., To cleave; to rive; to split; as, to rift an oak or a rock; to rift the clouds., To burst open; to split., To belch.
rile verb t. To render turbid or muddy; to stir up; to roil., To stir up in feelings; to make angry; to vex.
rill noun A very small brook; a streamlet., See Rille., To run a small stream.
rily adjective Roily.
rima noun A narrow and elongated aperture; a cleft; a fissure.
rime noun A rent or long aperture; a chink; a fissure; a crack., White frost; hoarfrost; congealed dew or vapor., To freeze or congeal into hoarfrost., A step or round of a ladder; a rung., Rhyme. See Rhyme., To rhyme. See Rhyme.
rimy adjective Abounding with rime; frosty.
rind noun The external covering or coat, as of flesh, fruit, trees, etc.; skin; hide; bark; peel; shell., To remove the rind of; to bark.
rine noun See Rind.
rung of Ring, of Ring, imp. & p. p. of Ring., A floor timber in a ship., One of the rounds of a ladder., One of the stakes of a cart; a spar; a heavy staff., One of the radial handles projecting from the rim of a steering wheel; also, one of the pins or trundles of a lantern wheel.
ring verb t. To cause to sound, especially by striking, as a metallic body; as, to ring a bell., To make (a sound), as by ringing a bell; to sound., To repeat often, loudly, or earnestly., To sound, as a bell or other sonorous body, particularly a metallic one., To practice making music with bells., To sound loud; to resound; to be filled with a ringing or reverberating sound., To continue to sound or vibrate; to resound., To be filled with report or talk; as, the whole town rings with his fame., A sound; especially, the sound of vibrating metals; as, the ring of a bell., Any loud sound; the sound of numerous voices; a sound continued, repeated, or reverberated., A chime, or set of bells harmonically tuned., A circle, or a circular line, or anything in the form of a circular line or hoop., Specifically, a circular ornament of gold or other precious material worn on the finger, or attached to the ear, the nose, or some other part of the person; as, a wedding ring., A circular area in which races are or run or other sports are performed; an arena., An inclosed space in which pugilists fight; hence, figuratively, prize fighting., A circular group of persons., The plane figure included between the circumferences of two concentric circles., The solid generated by the revolution of a circle, or other figure, about an exterior straight line (as an axis) lying in the same plane as the circle or other figure., An instrument, formerly used for taking the sun’s altitude, consisting of a brass ring suspended by a swivel, with a hole at one side through which a solar ray entering indicated the altitude on the graduated inner surface opposite., An elastic band partly or wholly encircling the spore cases of ferns. See Illust. of Sporangium., A clique; an exclusive combination of persons for a selfish purpose, as to control the market, distribute offices, obtain contracts, etc., To surround with a ring, or as with a ring; to encircle., To make a ring around by cutting away the bark; to girdle; as, to ring branches or roots., To fit with a ring or with rings, as the fingers, or a swine’s snout., To rise in the air spirally.
rink noun The smooth and level extent of ice marked off for the game of curling., An artificial sheet of ice, generally under cover, used for skating; also, a floor prepared for skating on with roller skates, or a building with such a floor.
riot noun Wanton or unrestrained behavior; uproar; tumult., Excessive and exxpensive feasting; wild and loose festivity; revelry., The tumultuous disturbance of the public peace by an unlawful assembly of three or more persons in the execution of some private object., To engage in riot; to act in an unrestrained or wanton manner; to indulge in excess of luxury, feasting, or the like; to revel; to run riot; to go to excess., To disturb the peace; to raise an uproar or sedition. See Riot, n., 3., To spend or pass in riot.
ripe noun The bank of a river., Ready for reaping or gathering; having attained perfection; mature; — said of fruits, seeds, etc.; as, ripe grain., Advanced to the state of fitness for use; mellow; as, ripe cheese; ripe wine., Having attained its full development; mature; perfected; consummate., Maturated or suppurated; ready to discharge; — said of sores, tumors, etc., Ready for action or effect; prepared., Like ripened fruit in ruddiness and plumpness., Intoxicated., To ripen; to grow ripe., To mature; to ripen.
rose imp. of Rise, imp. of Rise., A flower and shrub of any species of the genus Rosa, of which there are many species, mostly found in the morthern hemispere, A knot of ribbon formed like a rose; a rose knot; a rosette, esp. one worn on a shoe., A rose window. See Rose window, below., A perforated nozzle, as of a pipe, spout, etc., for delivering water in fine jets; a rosehead; also, a strainer at the foot of a pump., The erysipelas., The card of the mariner’s compass; also, a circular card with radiating lines, used in other instruments., The color of a rose; rose-red; pink., A diamond. See Rose diamond, below., To render rose-colored; to redden; to flush., To perfume, as with roses.
rise verb To move from a lower position to a higher; to ascend; to mount up. Specifically: — (a) To go upward by walking, climbing, flying, or any other voluntary motion; as, a bird rises in the air; a fish rises to the bait., To ascend or float in a fluid, as gases or vapors in air, cork in water, and the like., To move upward under the influence of a projecting force; as, a bullet rises in the air., To grow upward; to attain a certain height; as, this elm rises to the height of seventy feet., To reach a higher level by increase of quantity or bulk; to swell; as, a river rises in its bed; the mercury rises in the thermometer., To become erect; to assume an upright position; as, to rise from a chair or from a fall., To leave one’s bed; to arise; as, to rise early., To tower up; to be heaved up; as, the Alps rise far above the sea., To slope upward; as, a path, a line, or surface rises in this direction., To retire; to give up a siege., To swell or puff up in the process of fermentation; to become light, as dough, and the like., To have the aspect or the effect of rising., To appear above the horizont, as the sun, moon, stars, and the like., To become apparent; to emerge into sight; to come forth; to appear; as, an eruption rises on the skin; the land rises to view to one sailing toward the shore., To become perceptible to other senses than sight; as, a noise rose on the air; odor rises from the flower., To have a beginning; to proceed; to originate; as, rivers rise in lakes or springs., To increase in size, force, or value; to proceed toward a climax., To increase in power or fury; — said of wind or a storm, and hence, of passion., To become of higher value; to increase in price., To become larger; to swell; — said of a boil, tumor, and the like., To increase in intensity; — said of heat., To become louder, or higher in pitch, as the voice., To increase in amount; to enlarge; as, his expenses rose beyond his expectations., In various figurative senses., To become excited, opposed, or hostile; to go to war; to take up arms; to rebel., To attain to a better social position; to be promoted; to excel; to succeed., To become more and more dignified or forcible; to increase in interest or power; — said of style, thought, or discourse; as, to rise in force of expression; to rise in eloquence; a story rises in interest., To come to mind; to be suggested; to occur., To come; to offer itself., To ascend from the grave; to come to life., To terminate an official sitting; to adjourn; as, the committee rose after agreeing to the report., To ascend on a musical scale; to take a higher pith; as, to rise a tone or semitone., To be lifted, or to admit of being lifted, from the imposing stone without dropping any of the type; — said of a form., The act of rising, or the state of being risen., The distance through which anything rises; as, the rise of the thermometer was ten degrees; the rise of the river was six feet; the rise of an arch or of a step., Land which is somewhat higher than the rest; as, the house stood on a rise of land., Spring; source; origin; as, the rise of a stream., Appearance above the horizon; as, the rise of the sun or of a planet., Increase; advance; augmentation, as of price, value, rank, property, fame, and the like., Increase of sound; a swelling of the voice., Elevation or ascent of the voice; upward change of key; as, a rise of a tone or semitone., The spring of a fish to seize food (as a fly) near the surface of the water.
rish noun A rush (the plant).
risk noun Hazard; danger; peril; exposure to loss, injury, or destruction., Hazard of loss; liabillity to loss in property., To expose to risk, hazard, or peril; to venture; as, to risk goods on board of a ship; to risk one’s person in battle; to risk one’s fame by a publication., To incur the risk or danger of; as, to risk a battle.
rist 3d pers. sing. pres. of Rise, contracted from riseth.
rite noun The act of performing divine or solemn service, as established by law, precept, or custom; a formal act of religion or other solemn duty; a solemn observance; a ceremony; as, the rites of freemasonry.
rive verb t. To rend asunder by force; to split; to cleave; as, to rive timber for rails or shingles., To be split or rent asunder., A place torn; a rent; a rift.
road noun A journey, or stage of a journey., An inroad; an invasion; a raid., A place where one may ride; an open way or public passage for vehicles, persons, and animals; a track for travel, forming a means of communication between one city, town, or place, and another., A place where ships may ride at anchor at some distance from the shore; a roadstead; — often in the plural; as, Hampton Roads.
roam verb i. To go from place to place without any certain purpose or direction; to rove; to wander., To range or wander over., The act of roaming; a wandering; a ramble; as, he began his roam o’er hill amd dale.
roan adjective Having a bay, chestnut, brown, or black color, with gray or white thickly interspersed; — said of a horse., Made of the leather called roan; as, roan binding., The color of a roan horse; a roan color., A roan horse., A kind of leather used for slippers, bookbinding, etc., made from sheepskin, tanned with sumac and colored to imitate ungrained morocco.
roar verb i. To cry with a full, loud, continued sound., To bellow, or utter a deep, loud cry, as a lion or other beast., To cry loudly, as in pain, distress, or anger., To make a loud, confused sound, as winds, waves, passing vehicles, a crowd of persons when shouting together, or the like., To be boisterous; to be disorderly., To laugh out loudly and continuously; as, the hearers roared at his jokes., To make a loud noise in breathing, as horses having a certain disease. See Roaring, 2., To cry aloud; to proclaim loudly., The sound of roaring., The deep, loud cry of a wild beast; as, the roar of a lion., The cry of one in pain, distress, anger, or the like., A loud, continuous, and confused sound; as, the roar of a cannon, of the wind, or the waves; the roar of ocean., A boisterous outcry or shouting, as in mirth.
robe verb t. An outer garment; a dress of a rich, flowing, and elegant style or make; hence, a dress of state, rank, office, or the like., A skin of an animal, especially, a skin of the bison, dressed with the fur on, and used as a wrap., To invest with a robe or robes; to dress; to array; as, fields robed with green.
rock noun See Roc., A distaff used in spinning; the staff or frame about which flax is arranged, and from which the thread is drawn in spinning., A large concreted mass of stony material; a large fixed stone or crag. See Stone., Any natural deposit forming a part of the earth’s crust, whether consolidated or not, including sand, earth, clay, etc., when in natural beds., That which resembles a rock in firmness; a defense; a support; a refuge., Fig.: Anything which causes a disaster or wreck resembling the wreck of a vessel upon a rock., The striped bass. See under Bass., To cause to sway backward and forward, as a body resting on a support beneath; as, to rock a cradle or chair; to cause to vibrate; to cause to reel or totter., To move as in a cradle; hence, to put to sleep by rocking; to still; to quiet., To move or be moved backward and forward; to be violently agitated; to reel; to totter., To roll or saway backward and forward upon a support; as, to rock in a rocking-chair.
rody adjective Ruddy.
roed adjective Filled with roe.
roil verb To render turbid by stirring up the dregs or sediment of; as, to roil wine, cider, etc. , in casks or bottles; to roil a spring., To disturb, as the temper; to ruffle the temper of; to rouse the passion of resentment in; to perplex., To wander; to roam., To romp.
roin verb t. See Royne., A scab; a scurf, or scurfy spot.
roke noun Mist; smoke; damp, A vein of ore.
roky adjective Misty; foggy; cloudy.
role noun A part, or character, performed by an actor in a drama; hence, a part of function taken or assumed by any one; as, he has now taken the role of philanthropist.
roll noun To cause to revolve by turning over and over; to move by turning on an axis; to impel forward by causing to turn over and over on a supporting surface; as, to roll a wheel, a ball, or a barrel., To wrap round on itself; to form into a spherical or cylindrical body by causing to turn over and over; as, to roll a sheet of paper; to roll parchment; to roll clay or putty into a ball., To bind or involve by winding, as in a bandage; to inwrap; — often with up; as, to roll up a parcel., To drive or impel forward with an easy motion, as of rolling; as, a river rolls its waters to the ocean., To utter copiously, esp. with sounding words; to utter with a deep sound; — often with forth, or out; as, to roll forth some one’s praises; to roll out sentences., To press or level with a roller; to spread or form with a roll, roller, or rollers; as, to roll a field; to roll paste; to roll steel rails, etc., To move, or cause to be moved, upon, or by means of, rollers or small wheels., To beat with rapid, continuous strokes, as a drum; to sound a roll upon., To apply (one line or surface) to another without slipping; to bring all the parts of (one line or surface) into successive contact with another, in suck manner that at every instant the parts that have been in contact are equal., To turn over in one’s mind; to revolve., To move, as a curved object may, along a surface by rotation without sliding; to revolve upon an axis; to turn over and over; as, a ball or wheel rolls on the earth; a body rolls on an inclined plane., To move on wheels; as, the carriage rolls along the street., To be wound or formed into a cylinder or ball; as, the cloth rolls unevenly; the snow rolls well., To fall or tumble; — with over; as, a stream rolls over a precipice., To perform a periodical revolution; to move onward as with a revolution; as, the rolling year; ages roll away., To turn; to move circularly., To move, as waves or billows, with alternate swell and depression., To incline first to one side, then to the other; to rock; as, there is a great difference in ships about rolling; in a general semse, to be tossed about., To turn over, or from side to side, while lying down; to wallow; as, a horse rolls., To spread under a roller or rolling-pin; as, the paste rolls well., To beat a drum with strokes so rapid that they can scarcely be distinguished by the ear., To make a loud or heavy rumbling noise; as, the thunder rolls., The act of rolling, or state of being rolled; as, the roll of a ball; the roll of waves., That which rolls; a roller., A heavy cylinder used to break clods., One of a set of revolving cylinders, or rollers, between which metal is pressed, formed, or smoothed, as in a rolling mill; as, to pass rails through the rolls., That which is rolled up; as, a roll of fat, of wool, paper, cloth, etc., A document written on a piece of parchment, paper, or other materials which may be rolled up; a scroll., Hence, an official or public document; a register; a record; also, a catalogue; a list., A quantity of cloth wound into a cylindrical form; as, a roll of carpeting; a roll of ribbon., A cylindrical twist of tobacco., A kind of shortened raised biscuit or bread, often rolled or doubled upon itself., The oscillating movement of a vessel from side to side, in sea way, as distinguished from the alternate rise and fall of bow and stern called pitching., A heavy, reverberatory sound; as, the roll of cannon, or of thunder., The uniform beating of a drum with strokes so rapid as scarcely to be distinguished by the ear., Part; office; duty; role.
romp verb i. To play rudely and boisterously; to leap and frisk about in play., A girl who indulges in boisterous play., Rude, boisterous play or frolic; rough sport.
rong imp. & p. p. of Ring., Rung (of a ladder).
ront noun A runt.
rood noun A representation in sculpture or in painting of the cross with Christ hanging on it., A measure of five and a half yards in length; a rod; a perch; a pole., The fourth part of an acre, or forty square rods.
roof noun The cover of any building, including the roofing (see Roofing) and all the materials and construction necessary to carry and maintain the same upon the walls or other uprights. In the case of a building with vaulted ceilings protected by an outer roof, some writers call the vault the roof, and the outer protection the roof mask. It is better, however, to consider the vault as the ceiling only, in cases where it has farther covering., That which resembles, or corresponds to, the covering or the ceiling of a house; as, the roof of a cavern; the roof of the mouth., The surface or bed of rock immediately overlying a bed of coal or a flat vein., To cover with a roof., To inclose in a house; figuratively, to shelter.
rook noun Mist; fog. See Roke., To squat; to ruck., One of the four pieces placed on the corner squares of the board; a castle., A European bird (Corvus frugilegus) resembling the crow, but smaller. It is black, with purple and violet reflections. The base of the beak and the region around it are covered with a rough, scabrous skin, which in old birds is whitish. It is gregarious in its habits. The name is also applied to related Asiatic species., A trickish, rapacious fellow; a cheat; a sharper., To cheat; to defraud by cheating.
room noun Unobstructed spase; space which may be occupied by or devoted to any object; compass; extent of place, great or small; as, there is not room for a house; the table takes up too much room., A particular portion of space appropriated for occupancy; a place to sit, stand, or lie; a seat., Especially, space in a building or ship inclosed or set apart by a partition; an apartment or chamber., Place or position in society; office; rank; post; station; also, a place or station once belonging to, or occupied by, another, and vacated., Possibility of admission; ability to admit; opportunity to act; fit occasion; as, to leave room for hope., To occupy a room or rooms; to lodge; as, they arranged to room together., Spacious; roomy.
roon adjective & noun Vermilion red; red.
roop noun See Roup.
root verb i. To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine., Hence, to seek for favor or advancement by low arts or groveling servility; to fawn servilely., To turn up or to dig out with the snout; as, the swine roots the earth., The underground portion of a plant, whether a true root or a tuber, a bulb or rootstock, as in the potato, the onion, or the sweet flag., The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids., An edible or esculent root, especially of such plants as produce a single root, as the beet, carrot, etc.; as, the root crop., That which resembles a root in position or function, esp. as a source of nourishment or support; that from which anything proceeds as if by growth or development; as, the root of a tooth, a nail, a cancer, and the like., An ancestor or progenitor; and hence, an early race; a stem., A primitive form of speech; one of the earliest terms employed in language; a word from which other words are formed; a radix, or radical., The cause or occasion by which anything is brought about; the source., That factor of a quantity which when multiplied into itself will produce that quantity; thus, 3 is a root of 9, because 3 multiplied into itself produces 9; 3 is the cube root of 27., The fundamental tone of any chord; the tone from whose harmonics, or overtones, a chord is composed., The lowest place, position, or part., The time which to reckon in making calculations., To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow., To be firmly fixed; to be established., To plant and fix deeply in the earth, or as in the earth; to implant firmly; hence, to make deep or radical; to establish; — used chiefly in the participle; as, rooted trees or forests; rooted dislike., To tear up by the root; to eradicate; to extirpate; — with up, out, or away.
rope noun A large, stout cord, usually one not less than an inch in circumference, made of strands twisted or braided together. It differs from cord, line, and string, only in its size. See Cordage., A row or string consisting of a number of things united, as by braiding, twining, etc.; as, a rope of onions., The small intestines; as, the ropes of birds., To be formed into rope; to draw out or extend into a filament or thread, as by means of any glutinous or adhesive quality., To bind, fasten, or tie with a rope or cord; as, to rope a bale of goods., To connect or fasten together, as a party of mountain climbers, with a rope., To partition, separate, or divide off, by means of a rope, so as to include or exclude something; as, to rope in, or rope off, a plot of ground; to rope out a crowd., To lasso (a steer, horse)., To draw, as with a rope; to entice; to inveigle; to decoy; as, to rope in customers or voters., To prevent from winning (as a horse), by pulling or curbing.
ropy adjective capable of being drawn into a thread, as a glutinous substance; stringy; viscous; tenacious; glutinous; as ropy sirup; ropy lees.
rory adjective Dewy.
ross noun The rough, scaly matter on the surface of the bark of trees., To divest of the ross, or rough, scaly surface; as, to ross bark.
rost noun See Roust.
rosy superl. Resembling a rose in color, form, or qualities; blooming; red; blushing; also, adorned with roses.
rota noun An ecclesiastical court of Rome, called also Rota Romana, that takes cognizance of suits by appeal. It consists of twelve members., A short-lived political club established in 1659 by J.Harrington to inculcate the democratic doctrine of election of the principal officers of the state by ballot, and the annual retirement of a portion of Parliament., A species of zither, played like a guitar, used in the Middle Ages in church music; — written also rotta.
rote noun A root., A kind of guitar, the notes of which were produced by a small wheel or wheel-like arrangement; an instrument similar to the hurdy-gurdy., The noise produced by the surf of the sea dashing upon the shore. See Rut., A frequent repetition of forms of speech without attention to the meaning; mere repetition; as, to learn rules by rote., To learn or repeat by rote., To go out by rotation or succession; to rotate.
roty verb t. To make rotten.
roue noun One devoted to a life of sensual pleasure; a debauchee; a rake.
rouk verb i. See 5th Ruck, and Roke.
roun verb i. & t. Alt. of Rown
rown verb i. & t. To whisper., see Roun.
roup verb i. & t. To cry or shout; hence, to sell by auction., An outcry; hence, a sale of gods by auction., A disease in poultry. See Pip.
rout verb i. To roar; to bellow; to snort; to snore loudly., A bellowing; a shouting; noise; clamor; uproar; disturbance; tumult., To scoop out with a gouge or other tool; to furrow., To search or root in the ground, as a swine., A troop; a throng; a company; an assembly; especially, a traveling company or throng., A disorderly and tumultuous crowd; a mob; hence, the rabble; the herd of common people., The state of being disorganized and thrown into confusion; — said especially of an army defeated, broken in pieces, and put to flight in disorder or panic; also, the act of defeating and breaking up an army; as, the rout of the enemy was complete., A disturbance of the peace by persons assembled together with intent to do a thing which, if executed, would make them rioters, and actually making a motion toward the executing thereof., A fashionable assembly, or large evening party., To break the ranks of, as troops, and put them to flight in disorder; to put to rout., To assemble in a crowd, whether orderly or disorderly; to collect in company.
roux noun A thickening, made of flour, for soups and gravies.
ruby noun A precious stone of a carmine red color, sometimes verging to violet, or intermediate between carmine and hyacinth red. It is a red crystallized variety of corundum., The color of a ruby; carmine red; a red tint., That which has the color of the ruby, as red wine. Hence, a red blain or carbuncle., See Agate, n., 2., Any species of South American humming birds of the genus Clytolaema. The males have a ruby-colored throat or breast., Ruby-colored; red; as, ruby lips., To make red; to redden.
ruck noun A roc., To draw into wrinkles or unsightly folds; to crease; as, to ruck up a carpet., A wrinkle or crease in a piece of cloth, or in needlework., To cower; to huddle together; to squat; to sit, as a hen on eggs., A heap; a rick., The common sort, whether persons or things; as, the ruck in a horse race.
rudd noun A fresh-water European fish of the Carp family (Leuciscus erythrophthalmus). It is about the size and shape of the roach, but it has the dorsal fin farther back, a stouter body, and red irises. Called also redeye, roud, finscale, and shallow. A blue variety is called azurine, or blue roach.
rude superl. Characterized by roughness; umpolished; raw; lacking delicacy or refinement; coarse., Unformed by taste or skill; not nicely finished; not smoothed or polished; — said especially of material things; as, rude workmanship., Of untaught manners; unpolished; of low rank; uncivil; clownish; ignorant; raw; unskillful; — said of persons, or of conduct, skill, and the like., Violent; tumultuous; boisterous; inclement; harsh; severe; — said of the weather, of storms, and the like; as, the rude winter., Barbarous; fierce; bloody; impetuous; — said of war, conflict, and the like; as, the rude shock of armies., Not finished or complete; inelegant; lacking chasteness or elegance; not in good taste; unsatisfactory in mode of treatment; — said of literature, language, style, and the like.
rued imp. & past participle of Rue
ruff noun A game similar to whist, and the predecessor of it., The act of trumping, especially when one has no card of the suit led., To trump., A muslin or linen collar plaited, crimped, or fluted, worn formerly by both sexes, now only by women and children., Something formed with plaits or flutings, like the collar of this name., An exhibition of pride or haughtiness., Wanton or tumultuous procedure or conduct., A low, vibrating beat of a drum, not so loud as a roll; a ruffle., A collar on a shaft ot other piece to prevent endwise motion. See Illust. of Collar., A set of lengthened or otherwise modified feathers round, or on, the neck of a bird., A limicoline bird of Europe and Asia (Pavoncella, / Philommachus, pugnax) allied to the sandpipers. The males during the breeding season have a large ruff of erectile feathers, variable in their colors, on the neck, and yellowish naked tubercles on the face. They are polygamous, and are noted for their pugnacity in the breeding season. The female is called reeve, or rheeve., A variety of the domestic pigeon, having a ruff of its neck., To ruffle; to disorder., To beat with the ruff or ruffle, as a drum., To hit, as the prey, without fixing it., Alt. of Ruffe
ruft noun Eructation; belching.
ruga noun A wrinkle; a fold; as, the rugae of the stomach.
ruin noun The act of falling or tumbling down; fall., Such a change of anything as destroys it, or entirely defeats its object, or unfits it for use; destruction; overthrow; as, the ruin of a ship or an army; the ruin of a constitution or a government; the ruin of health or hopes., That which is fallen down and become worthless from injury or decay; as, his mind is a ruin; especially, in the plural, the remains of a destroyed, dilapidated, or desolate house, fortress, city, or the like., The state of being dcayed, or of having become ruined or worthless; as, to be in ruins; to go to ruin., That which promotes injury, decay, or destruction., To bring to ruin; to cause to fall to pieces and decay; to make to perish; to bring to destruction; to bring to poverty or bankruptcy; to impair seriously; to damage essentially; to overthrow., To fall to ruins; to go to ruin; to become decayed or dilapidated; to perish.
rukh noun The roc., A large bird, supposed by some to be the same as the extinct Epiornis of Madagascar.
rule adjective That which is prescribed or laid down as a guide for conduct or action; a governing direction for a specific purpose; an authoritative enactment; a regulation; a prescription; a precept; as, the rules of various societies; the rules governing a school; a rule of etiquette or propriety; the rules of cricket., Uniform or established course of things., Systematic method or practice; as, my ule is to rise at six o’clock., Ordibary course of procedure; usual way; comon state or condition of things; as, it is a rule to which there are many exeptions., Conduct in general; behavior., The act of ruling; administration of law; government; empire; authority; control., An order regulating the practice of the courts, or an order made between parties to an action or a suit., A determinate method prescribed for performing any operation and producing a certain result; as, a rule for extracting the cube root., A general principle concerning the formation or use of words, or a concise statement thereof; thus, it is a rule in England, that s or es , added to a noun in the singular number, forms the plural of that noun; but “man” forms its plural “men”, and is an exception to the rule., A straight strip of wood, metal, or the like, which serves as a guide in drawing a straight line; a ruler., A measuring instrument consisting of a graduated bar of wood, ivory, metal, or the like, which is usually marked so as to show inches and fractions of an inch, and jointed so that it may be folded compactly., A thin plate of metal (usually brass) of the same height as the type, and used for printing lines, as between columns on the same page, or in tabular work., A composing rule. See under Conposing., To control the will and actions of; to exercise authority or dominion over; to govern; to manage., To control or direct by influence, counsel, or persuasion; to guide; — used chiefly in the passive., To establish or settle by, or as by, a rule; to fix by universal or general consent, or by common practice., To require or command by rule; to give as a direction or order of court., To mark with lines made with a pen, pencil, etc., guided by a rule or ruler; to print or mark with lines by means of a rule or other contrivance effecting a similar result; as, to rule a sheet of paper of a blank book., To have power or command; to exercise supreme authority; — often followed by over., To lay down and settle a rule or order of court; to decide an incidental point; to enter a rule., To keep within a (certain) range for a time; to be in general, or as a rule; as, prices ruled lower yesterday than the day before.
ruly adjective Orderly; easily restrained; — opposed to unruly.
rump noun The end of the backbone of an animal, with the parts adjacent; the buttock or buttocks., Among butchers, the piece of beef between the sirloin and the aitchbone piece. See Illust. of Beef., The hind or tail end; a fag-end; a remnant.
rune noun A letter, or character, belonging to the written language of the ancient Norsemen, or Scandinavians; in a wider sense, applied to the letters of the ancient nations of Northern Europe in general., Old Norse poetry expressed in runes.
runt adjective Any animal which is unusually small, as compared with others of its kind; — applied particularly to domestic animals., A variety of domestic pigeon, related to the barb and carrier., A dwarf; also, a mean, despicable, boorish person; — used opprobriously., The dead stump of a tree; also, the stem of a plant.
ruse noun An artifice; trick; stratagem; wile; fraud; deceit.
rush noun A name given to many aquatic or marsh-growing endogenous plants with soft, slender stems, as the species of Juncus and Scirpus., The merest trifle; a straw., To move forward with impetuosity, violence, and tumultuous rapidity or haste; as, armies rush to battle; waters rush down a precipice., To enter into something with undue haste and eagerness, or without due deliberation and preparation; as, to rush business or speculation., To push or urge forward with impetuosity or violence; to hurry forward., To recite (a lesson) or pass (an examination) without an error., A moving forward with rapidity and force or eagerness; a violent motion or course; as, a rush of troops; a rush of winds; a rush of water., Great activity with pressure; as, a rush of business., A perfect recitation., A rusher; as, the center rush, whose place is in the center of the rush line; the end rush., The act of running with the ball.
rusk noun A kind of light, soft bread made with yeast and eggs, often toasted or crisped in an oven; or, a kind of sweetened biscuit., A kind of light, hard cake or bread, as for stores., Bread or cake which has been made brown and crisp, and afterwards grated, or pulverized in a mortar.
russ noun sing. & pl. A Russian, or the Russians., The language of the Russians., Of or pertaining to the Russians.
rust noun The reddish yellow coating formed on iron when exposed to moist air, consisting of ferric oxide or hydroxide; hence, by extension, any metallic film of corrosion., A minute mold or fungus forming reddish or rusty spots on the leaves and stems of cereal and other grasses (Trichobasis Rubigo-vera), now usually believed to be a form or condition of the corn mildew (Puccinia graminis). As rust, it has solitary reddish spores; as corn mildew, the spores are double and blackish., That which resembles rust in appearance or effects., A composition used in making a rust joint. See Rust joint, below., Foul matter arising from degeneration; as, rust on salted meat., Corrosive or injurious accretion or influence., To contract rust; to be or become oxidized., To be affected with the parasitic fungus called rust; also, to acquire a rusty appearance, as plants., To degenerate in idleness; to become dull or impaired by inaction., To cause to contract rust; to corrode with rust; to affect with rust of any kind., To impair by time and inactivity.
ruth verb Sorrow for the misery of another; pity; tenderness., That which causes pity or compassion; misery; distress; a pitiful sight.
ryal adjective Royal., See Rial, an old English coin.
rynd noun A piece of iron crossing the hole in the upper millstone by which the stone is supported on the spindle.
ryot noun A peasant or cultivator of the soil.
rysh noun Rush, a plant.
ryth noun A ford.